Exposure

Shutter speed, Aperture, Film Speed (ISO) either of these can be used to control exposure (amount of light or brightness) of a photographic composition.

As far as technique goes the following is pretty much all you need. Rest is all various aspects built on top of this.

Shutter speed: Doubling the shutter speed halves the light. The shutter speeds of less than one second are listed as reciprocals of what they really are. So 2 = 1/2 second, 4 = 1/4 second and so on. However, 1'' = 1 second and 2'' = 2 second and so on.

SS: 1" 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 ...

Aperture: Each aperture stop (or 'f stop') corresponds to half the light of the one on the left.

A: 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 32 ...

Film Speed: Doubling the ISO effectively doubles the amount of light and also increases the noise in the picture. Noise for speeds up to 400 would not be noticiable in a good camera.

ISO: 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 ...

Mixing and matching the above could produce the same exposure but different visual effects.

for example: EV = f/8, 1/60, 200 == f/5.6,1/125, 200 = f/5.6,1/60,400